Wednesday, June 23, 2021

“Painting in Space”: a precursor of three-dimensional painting in space

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Painting in Space (“Les Peintures dans l’espace” in French) is an art movement that was invented by Yervand Kochar in the 1930s in Paris. This movement syntheses all the possibilities of painting, sculpture and graphic and celebrates a new way of expressing the space. According to Kochar, the “space” was the achievement of the 20th century.

Painting in Space consists of different metal panels with various paintings. With the help of an engine situated in the base of the figure it is being viewed in slow motion. This way of making art does not constitute a sculpture, but a painting in motion. Kochar expands the possibilities of visual perception by introducing movement into saturated forms, mixing painting with the plasticity of three-dimensional geometric forms.

One work of the Painting in Space works, aptly named Les Peintures dans l’espace, (1934) by Yervand Kochar, is being exhibited and in the permanent collection at Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris since 1963.

DATE 1934
CATEGORY Painting in space, Paintings in other museums
ABOUT THIS PROJECT Oil on metal
Centre George Pompidou, Paris

Yervand Kochar signed Charles Sirato’s “Manifeste dimensioniste”. The Dimensionist manifesto exposes the theory of planism that Charles Sirato defended. It announces the first international exposition of dimension with Arp, Calder, Delaunay, Domela, Duchamp, Fernandez, Ferren, Gabo, Gonzalez, Kandinsky, Kann, Kobro, Lipchitz, Kotchar, Marcoussis, Mead, Michelet, Miro, Moholy-Nagy, Negri, Nissim, Pevsner, Picabia, Picasso, Prampolini, Prinner, Rathsman, Sonia Delaunay, Taeuber-Arp, Kakabadze, Bollinger, A. Birot, Bryen, Huidobro, Lévesque, Van Heeckeren, Pedro et Sirato.

One of the most recent developments is the “Best Creation” award, that the painting in space, titled “First Sin”(1927), was honored with within the framework of the “Art-Monaco 12”.

DATE 1927
CATEGORY Painting in space
ABOUT THIS PROJECT Оil on metal
Private  collection

Spanish Prisoners

DATE 1968

CATEGORY Painting in space

ABOUT THIS PROJECT Oil on metal

Ervand Kochar Museum, Yerevan

The Morning

DATE 1962

CATEGORY Painting in space

ABOUT THIS PROJECT Oil on metal

Private collection

Images

DATE 1974-1975

CATEGORY Painting in space

ABOUT THIS PROJECT Oil on metal

Ervand Kochar Museum, Yerevan

Erebuni-Yerevan

DATE 1968

CATEGORY Painting in space

ABOUT THIS PROJECT Oil on metal

Ervand Kochar Museum, Yerevan

Untitled

DATE 1930

CATEGORY Painting in space

ABOUT THIS PROJECT Oil on metal. Glace

Private collection

WHO IS PIET MONDRIAN?

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Piet Mondrian is a Dutch artist best known for his abstract paintings. Art that is abstract does not show things that are recognisable such as people, objects or landscapes. Instead artists use colours, shapes and textures to achieve their effect

Piet Mondrian, ‘Composition with Yellow, Blue and Red’ 1937–42
Piet Mondrian
Composition with Yellow, Blue and Red 1937–42
Tate

As well as abstract art Mondrian was also passionate about dancing! Apparently he didn’t like slow traditional dances like waltzes or tango, but enjoyed high energy, fast dancing styles! He even called one of his abstract paintings Broadway Boogie Woogieafter a popular dance of the time.

When Mondrian made his paintings, he would always mix his own colours, never using the paint directly out of a tube. He often used primary colours – red yellow and blue – as in this painting.

Piet Mondrian Composition C (No.III) with Red, Yellow and Blue
Piet Mondrian Composition C (No.III) with Red, Yellow and Blue © 2007 Mondrian/Holtzman Trust c/o HCR International, Warrenton, VA

Mondrian did not use a ruler to measure out his lines! He thought carefully about where to place the lines, like those that you see in this painting. Notice how the red, yellow and blue are placed to the side and the centre of painting doesn’t have any colour. Mondrian often used colour and composition in this way. (A composition is the arrangement of shapes and images in a picture).

Although he is best known for his abstract paintings made from squares and rectangles, Piet Mondrian started out painting realistic scenes. He especially liked painting trees.

Piet Mondrian, ‘The Tree A’ c.1913
Piet Mondrian
The Tree A c.1913
Tate

Can you see the shape of a tree in this painting? It shows how he began to develop his abstract style. The trunk and branches of the tree have become a network of horizontal and vertical lines.

In the early 19th century, Paris was the place where all the exciting new art was happening and Mondrian felt he had to go there. He took a big risk for his art. He left behind his home in the Netherlands in 1911 and the woman he was going to marry, to pursue his career as an artist in Paris.

This is the Piet Mondrian in his Paris studio.

Photograph of Piet Mondrian in his Paris studio in 1933
Mondrian in his Paris studio in 1933 with Lozenge Composition with Four Yellow Lines, 1933 and Composition with Double Lines and Yellow, 1933 © 2014 Mondrian/Holtzman Trust c/o HCR International USA

The risk paid off. Mondrian became an important artist whose ideas and work influenced lots of later artists. In fact it wasn’t just art that Mondrian inspired. The influence of his paintings can be seen in lots of other things – from furniture to fashion!

Photograph of models in Mondrian dresses by Yves St Laurent (1966)

Ulay : the artist is still present

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Ulay‘s official website wrote:”It is with our immense sadness that we write to inform you of the passing of one of the greatest artists of our time, the pioneer uof polaroid photography, the father of performance art, the most radical, the one and only, ULAY, who has left for another journey, today, peacefully in his sleep (November 30, 1943-March 2, 2020)”.

It is with great sadness I learned about my friend and former partner Ulay’s death today. He was an exceptional artist…

Publiée par Marina Abramovic sur Lundi 2 mars 2020

Ulay is the pseudonym of Frank Uwe Laysiepen. He was born in 1943 in Solingen, Germany. Ulay was formally trained as a photographer, and between 1968 and 1971, he worked extensively as a consultant for Polaroid. In the early period of his artistic activity (1968-1976) he undertook a thematic search for understandings of the notions of identity and the body on both the personal and communal levels, mainly through series of Polaroid photographs, aphorisms and intimate performances. At that time, Ulay’s photographic approach was becoming increasingly performative and resulted in performative photography (Fototot, 1976). Later, in the late stage of his early work, performative tendencies within the medium of photography were transformed completely into the medium of performance and actions (There Is a Criminal Touch to Art, 1976). From 1976 to 1988, he collaborated with Marina Abramović on numerous performances; their work focused on questioning perceived masculine and feminine traits and pushing the physical limits of the body (Relation Works). After the break with Marina, Ulay focused on photography, addressing the position of the marginalised individual in contemporary society and re-examining the problem of nationalism and its symbols (Berlin Afterimages, 1994-1995). Nevertheless, although he was working primarily in photography, he remained connected to the question of the ‘performative’, which resulted in his constant ‘provocation’ of audiences through the realisation of numerous performances, workshops and lecture-performances. In recent years, Ulay is mostly engaged in projects and artistic initiatives that raise awareness, enhance understanding and appreciation of, and respect for, water (Earth Water Catalogue, 2012). Ulay’s work, as well as his collaborative work with Marina Abramović, is featured in many collections of major art institutions around the world such as: Stedejlik Museum Amsterdam; Centre Pompidou Paris; Museum of Modern Art New York…
After four decades of living and working in Amsterdam, several long-term artistic projects in India, Australia and China, and a professorship of Performance and New Media Art at the Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung, Karlsruhe in Germany, Ulay currently lives and works in Amsterdam and Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Tevž Logar

In honor of performance artist Ulay, who died today at age 76, we're looking back to an electric moment in 2010, when he…

Publiée par MoMA The Museum of Modern Art sur Lundi 2 mars 2020

Stuck into self-quarantine to fight against Covid-19? Top Museums Offering Free Virtual Tours

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Apart from rushing to supermarkets for more spaghetti, rice and toilet paper, many people wonder what they can do for art and culture. The entertainment is not an issue, since we have Netflix. So, here are several websites that will allow you to get to museums without even leaving your couch:

Louvre, Paris

The Louvre or the Louvre Museum, is the world’s largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city’s 1st arrondissement (district or ward). Approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square meters (782,910 square feet). In 2019, the Louvre received 9.6 million visitors.

British Museum, London

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been widely sourced during the era of the British Empire. It documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. It was the first public national museum in the world.

Pergamon, Berlin

Pergamon, Pergamos or Pergamum, was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis. During the Hellenistic period, it became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, who transformed it into one of the major cultural centers of the Greek world. Many remains of its impressive monuments can still be seen and especially the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar.

Musée d’Orsay, Paris

The history of the museum, of its building is quite unusual. In the centre of Paris on the banks of the Seine, opposite the Tuileries Gardens, the museum was installed in the former Orsay railway station, built for the Universal Exhibition of 1900. So the building itself could be seen as the first “work of art” in the Musee d’Orsay, which displays collections of art from the period 1848 to 1914.

Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

The Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam houses the largest collection of artworks by Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) in the world. The permanent collection includes over 200 paintings by Vincent van Gogh, 500 drawings and more than 750 letters. The museum also presents exhibitions on various subjects from 19th-century art history.

MASP – Museu de Arte de São Paulo , Brazil

The Museu de Arte de São Paulo is a private, nonprofit museum founded by Brazilian businessman Assis Chateaubriand, in 1947, as Brazil’s first modern museum. Originally located on Rua 7 de Abril, in São Paulo’s downtown district, in 1968 the museum was transferred to its current building on Avenida Paulista; its striking architectural design by Lina Bo Bardi has made it a landmark of 20th-century architecture. Lina Bo Bardi used glass and concrete to create an architecture of rough surfaces without luxurious finishing but that conveys a sense of lightness, transparency, and suspension.

The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles

The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center features works of art dating from the eighth through the twenty-first century, showcased against a backdrop of dramatic architecture, tranquil gardens, and breathtaking views of Los Angeles. The collection includes European paintings, drawings, sculpture, illuminated manuscripts, decorative arts, and European, Asian, and American photographs.The J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Villa in Malibu features Greek, Roman, and Etruscan antiquities presented in a setting modeled after a first-century Roman country house, the Villa dei Papiri in Herculaneum, Italy.

Fabergé eggs : elegant and lavish

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Fabergé eggs are jeweled eggs created by the House of Fabergé, in St. Petersburg, Imperial Russia. Experts say that there were around 69 eggs, of which 57 survive today. They were all manufactured under the supervision of Peter Carl Fabergé between 1885 and 1917, made for the Russian Tsars Alexander III and Nicholas II as Easter gifts for their wives and mothers.

Catherine the Great Easter Egg, 1914 Hillwood Estate, Museum & Gardens

Faberge eggs may be Easter’s most elegant and mystic decorations ever created. The first Faberge egg was ordered by Czar Alexander III as an Easter gift for Czarina Maria, who was her wife.

Gatchina Palace Egg, 1901 Walters Art Museum

With Bolsheviks seizing St. Petersburg, the Romanov family’s rule came to a very violent end, leaving those eggs as lavish reminders of the dynasty’s reign. These eggs are considered to be very important for decorative art history. The number of Fabergé’s imperial eggs was 50, of which 43 survive in private collections and museums.

Courtesy of Virginia Museum of Fine Arts.

Alexander III died in 1894, but his son Tsar Nicholas II maintains the tradition to commission eggs. Moreover, he raised the stakes by commissioning two eggs per year, one for his mother and one for his wife. The eggs were each entirely unique and made of different materials. They range in size and design, in color and mood. They sometimes hide surprises inside and sometimes they hide nothing. Each egg requires one year of work and sometimes even two. Apart from being lavish and extraordinary, those eggs are created by taking into consideration their connection to Romanov family’s personal lives. For example, some of the eggs have tiny family portraits on them.

Some of the eggs were showcased at the Paris World’s Fair in 1900. House of Fabergé had some kind of magic and people were already very fascinated with those eggs. The name Fabergé is still a strong statement today.

Propaganda : famous posters

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According to Cambridge Dictionary, propaganda is defined as “information, ideas, opinions, or images, often only giving one part of an argument, that are broadcast, published, or in some other way spread with the intention of influencing people’s opinions”.

One more definition of the same word:

AMERICAN DICTIONARY

David Welch from the University of Kent talks about propaganda in his interview to the British Library: “Propaganda is the dissemination of ideas intended to convince people to think and act in a particular way and for a particular purpose. It’s crucial to understand that it’s the instigator’s purpose that defines or distinguishes propaganda from other similar forms of activity such as advertising and education. While definitions have changed, the concept of propaganda has not really changed. But what has changed are the means of communications from the early print media both written and visual to the electronic thinking..obviously a film, radio, television and of course now the Internet and this change in the means of communications has had a profound effect on both the speed with which propaganda is being disseminated and also the scale on which it has been disseminated”.

Here is the full video:

Famous propaganda posters

Uncle Sam is the national personification of the USA. He symbolizes the USA in American Culture since the 19th century.

The poster was created in 1917 to call Americans to serve in the USA Army. Some 2 million or more Americans signed up to fight in France during the WW1. Many may have been inspired by James Montgomery Flagg’s iconic Uncle Sam “I Want YOU” poster. Over 4 million copies were plastered onto walls and signposts throughout the USA. Within weeks, almost all the American citizens had already seen it.

Symbol of anti-Americanism, this poster, by Harald Damsleth ,was used by Nazi Germany to promote anti-Americanism. It shows the “immorality of beauty pageants”, the problem of gun violence in the USA, a boxing-glove holding a money bag and also the mechanical creature of the poster has a Ku Klux Klan hood.

Harald Damsleth drifted away from modernism, a style qualified as “degenerate” by national socialists, and got closer to naturalistic style. His also had some Russophobe posters. In 1950, Damsleth was sentenced to five years of hard labor for treason committed during World War II, but was pardoned after two years served.

Shepard Fairey‘s “Hope” poster inspired Donald Trump’s “Nope” poster. In a sense, the “Nope” poster may also be considered as “propaganda”, but compared to the “hope” poster, the “Nope” poster tries to warn that there may be some dangers if Trump is elected.

In 2010, The Colbert Report’s Stephen Colbert asked Fairey: “How’s that “Hope” working out for you now?” Fairey’s answer: “There were things I admire about Obama and things I’m disappointed in – such as drone strikes. I’m unhappy that he didn’t dismantle the surveillance state and he defended domestic spying. But there’s nobody that’s going to be perfect.”

Rosie the Riveter symbolizes feminine power and independence. It has different versions, celebrates women emancipation and therefore is linked to feminism.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the USA government called upon manufacturers to produce greater amounts of warfare. In 1942, Westinghouse Electric’s internal War Production Coordinating Committee hired the Pittsburgh artist J. Howard Miller through an advertising agency, to create posters for raising workers’ morale. 42 posters designed by Miller were showcased in the factory for two weeks, then replaced by the next one in the series.  Among all the posters depicting worker’s strength, was the yellow poster with a strong female figure with the words “We Can Do it.”